What is Capital Investment? Types, Benefits and Overview

January 5, 2023
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The two fundamental criteria for a corporation to keep its market share are growth and consistency. Because of this, businesses must evaluate various capital investment project types and select the one that will be most profitable. No matter the size or nature of the company, it must make investments in its operations. The investments support the company's performance development and optimization. We'll learn about capital investment through this blog. The benefits and drawbacks of capital investment for a business.

What is a Capital Investment?

Capital investments refer to equity investments. It is the money that business owners invest to grow and increase the productivity of their enterprise. Simply put, it is the organisation's money to purchase fixed assets to serve the long-term corporate goals and objectives.

 Long-term capital investments include those made to buy assets like real estate, manufacturing facilities, and machinery. Contrarily, capital investments in equity are made following a thorough review of all definite and precise costs. This aids in boosting earnings and decreasing losses.

Without capital investments, businesses and organisations cannot achieve their financial and economic goals. To maintain market productivity and high-calibre products, ongoing capital expenditure is necessary.

How Does It Work?

Now the next thing that comes to mind is how capital investment functions. Its operation is pretty similar to that of other investments. 

Raising finance for investments is the first step. A new business can arrange funding from several sources, including capital firms, angel investors, and other financial organisations. An established business, on the other hand, can arrange funding using its cash flows. To raise the necessary funds, it may also issue bonds or stocks. Capital investment doesn't have a set dollar level that is necessary. From a few lakhs to billions and trillions are possible ranges.

Once the money is raised, it becomes important to evaluate different capital assets which a company can purchase. Companies have to go through several factors like price, usage, life, and more while choosing these capital assets. After a careful evaluation, companies invest their money in these assets and reap benefits out of the same. It becomes important to take care of these assets also as these are depreciable in nature. So, eventually, your benefits must be more compared to the cost of the asset.

Types of Capital Investment in Nigeria:

1. Equities

Trading stocks could be a great way to build or increase wealth. Investors with moderate to high-risk tolerance actively trade this asset regularly. The risk element of its price volatility must be carefully managed to get the desired result. Equities are tried-and-true methods of generating dividend income and capital growth (for dividend-paying shares). One of the greatest methods to invest in this industry is to have the capacity to conduct both fundamental and technological research. These analyses help in deciding which stock to buy and when. Moreover, when to sell particular stocks.

2. Bonds

At every stage, the capital market offers a variety of unique bonds. Bonds come in a variety of values and coupon rates. Coupons on bonds are normally paid out every two years. Your face value and the coupon rate are used to determine the coupon. This is the go-to asset class for investors who are particular about receiving a consistent return on their assets. There are various bond kinds, and each one has unique properties.

  • Federal government bonds
  • State bonds
  • Sukuk bonds
  • Private bonds

3. Mutual Funds

It is a fund pool controlled by experts that provides access to various financial and capital market products. You don't necessarily need to conduct a tonne of research before making this type of investment. The managers of the mutual fund will take great care of that for you. All you need to do to get daily returns on your investment is to invest in the funds. Management fees and performance over time are important considerations. Before you begin your investment adventure, do some research on the fund managers and have a thorough understanding of the prior performances of the fund in question.

4. Real Estate

In this economy, landed properties are generally appreciable. Real estate investing has its risks and liquidity issues. Because of this, it is ideal for an investor who wants to diversify. Real estate investments can be seen from various perspectives.

  • Buy and sell land/properties
  • Commercial and residential properties 
  • REITs

5. Term Deposit

Term deposits are one of the market's straightforward investing instruments. frequently known as fixed deposits. You must fix your capital (or funds) with a company that offers an interest rate and maturity date that are predetermined. An easy approach to investing is this. In most circumstances, it's somewhat safe. Several low-risk investors are active in this market.

Importance of Capital Investment:

Every business owner makes a capital investment to acquire the assets that are necessary for the business's expansion and survival. It entails investing money in ways that will lead to future economic gains, improving operational effectiveness, creating significant amounts of revenue, and gaining a sizable market share.

Where Does Capital Investment Come From?

Financial institutions, angel investors, and venture capitalists are only a few of the many sources of capital investment. Startups and new businesses are typically the ones looking for capital injections.

However, after receiving investment money, the money must be used to advance and grow the company. The enormous sum of money collected from investors when a firm announces it will go public is also regarded as a type of capital investment.

Benefits of Capital Investment:

1. Financial profits

There is no question that capital investments help businesses financially. It aids in raising production effectiveness. Capital investments boost an organization's and the market's overall economy. Better employment management is aided indirectly by increased productivity.

2. Generates wealth

Wealth creation is boosted by capital investments. Wealth creation also aids in the growth and maintenance of the business by market trends. when financial resources are used wisely by the project's specifications.

It converts labour into money. Because of the wealth it creates, management, shareholders, and employees all get more money. Additionally, additional investments can be made with this wealth.

3. Healthy market competition

Investments in capital increase market competition. This rivalry is beneficial for development and upkeep. Market competition is necessary to put pressure on businesses to provide high-quality goods. When a product faces rivals and detractors on the market, capital investments become crucial.

4. Attract customers and investors

By continuing the supply of high-quality goods and fostering healthy market competition. Customers and investors are drawn to markets with capital investments. Investors enter the market to raise their share of earnings. Customers are drawn to businesses that offer high-quality goods that meet their needs.

Growth Rate of Capital Investment in Nigeria: 

Nigerian capital investments increased by 17.6% in the first quarter of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. The portfolio investments (bonds, stocks, and money market instruments) saw the biggest growth, at 1.7%. The total growth rate for other investments, which include trade credits, loans, currency deposits, and other claims, was 40.7%.


To sum up the blog, money spent on capital investments is always money wisely spent. Most of the time, it comes back with huge earnings and popularity. To guarantee the longevity and integrity of a company in the market, capital investment is necessary. Companies and organisations should evaluate themselves annually to monitor their development and sustain productivity.

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