What Are Investing in Equities And How To Invest In Them: Complete Guide

December 23, 2022
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Equities, often known as stocks, are instruments of investments that allow the general public to participate in the earnings of a business. However, not everybody is familiar with investing in equities. Whether you are just beginning your equity investment journey or are already on it, this article outlines key information you should be aware of about investing in equities.


Equities are a type of share, which grants ownership interests in a business. Thus, purchasing shares of a company usually entails purchasing equity. When you become an employee of a new company, you might get deals of equity in your salary package and offering in the form of ESOPs and shares. This indicates that you will own a portion of the company's stock. Equities don't provide guaranteed income because they don't pay a fixed interest rate. In other words, there is a risk involved when you invest in stocks. A financial advisor can help you plan out your investments and clarify your doubts regarding investing in equities.

What Are Equities?

The investments in equity securities definition refer to the shares of ownership in a company listed in the stock market. Therefore, when a corporation offers equity, it is selling a portion of its ownership. On the other hand, bonds signify borrowing money from investors.

Due to the potential for big returns, people should maintain a balanced investment equity portfolio to avoid the danger of losing money. 

According to conventional thinking, young people can take risks and invest in stocks because of their potential for significant long-term gains. As a result, they are likely to desire to do so. Nevertheless, equity exposure gets increasingly dangerous as you go closer to retirement.

How Can You Invest In Equities?

There are two main ways to invest in equity.

Direct Stocks Investments 

To do so you must open an account with a brokerage company. This process takes around 15 minutes only. You can then simply add funds to your account with the brokerage company and locate the best companies to invest in online through the website of the broker. 


1. Making an appropriate stock selection can result in significant potential rewards.

2. Options are unlimited! There is a vast selection of equities available in the market to pick from. Depending on your level of risk tolerance, consider investing in appropriate stocks.


1. It is important to conduct an in-depth study on the many factors before purchasing a stock. Keep yourself in line with the recent market developments. The complexities and expertise required to conduct a direct trade or investment in stock is quite complicated. Therefore, to avoid potential losses, a person must be very well-versed with multiple aspects related to stock market.

2. There is always a market risk involved when you invest in equity directly.

Equity Mutual Funds  

Mutual funds, i.e. a pool of stocks, have become one of the most popular financial tools for acquiring assets for a range of life goals. These are investment schemes which invest their assets in stocks of different companies after collecting a pool of money from individual investors.


1. When dealing with mutual funds, the fund manager chooses the stocks and makes the call on your behalf, but direct stock investing takes more professional skills.

2. Mutual funds allow you to diversify your investments across several sectors and industries. As a result, investing in equities carries less risk.

3. Investments in mutual funds often have a small ticket size. In other words, you can start investing with as little as N1000 for Naira mutual funds and $10 for Dollar mutual funds. Then, using a Systematic Investment Plan, you can gradually increase your investment (SIP). 

4. There is a lot of liquidity in mutual funds. If you ever find yourself in a dire financial situation, you can instantly withdraw the funds into cash between 24 and 48 hours after you submit a redemption request, subject to exit loads.


1. If you're not paying attention to mutual fund expense ratios and sales charges, then your overall cost of the investment may increase a lot.

2. Churning, turnover, and window dressing often hovers around mutual fund investments.

3. The execution time in a mutual fund is slow. If you place your mutual fund trade anytime before the cut-off time for same-day NAV, you'll receive the same closing price NAV.

Benefits Of Investing In Equities 

Capital growth - You get more money than you spent when you sell shares of a company whose value has increased.

Income - Because many businesses distribute a portion of their profits to shareholders in the form of dividends, some people engage in shares for income.

Financial stability - Equities, particularly for investors who want both income and growth, can give you financial security.

Less risk of inflation - Over the long term, stocks can shield real money from inflation. However, larger rewards come with higher dangers, just like with any investment.

Ownership - When you buy shares, you join the company as a shareholder and are entitled to a share of the earnings. You can vote within the company as well.

Disadvantages Of Investing In Equities

Time-consuming - You must first conduct due diligence on each firm to establish whether you believe it will be lucrative before purchasing its stock. You should also develop your ability to understand financial statements and annual reports and keep up with news coverage.

Uncertainty - It is impossible to predict how well these instruments will perform from year to year, they ought to carry a significant level of risk.

Preferential treatment - If a company declares bankruptcy, preferred stockholders, bondholders, and creditors are paid first; regular investors are paid last.

Volatility - The value of stocks constantly changes. People frequently buy low out of greed and sell cheaply out of fear. 

Equities and Dividends

When the value of the shares you own rises above their original purchase price, your holdings in equities increases in value. But other ways investing in stocks might benefit you.

For instance, businesses distribute dividends to their shareholders from their profits. Although these regular payments aren't guaranteed, they can have a significant impact when they are. As an investor, you have the option of taking your dividends as income or reinvesting them.

It's critical to comprehend the distinction between capital gains and dividends if you own stocks. 

A capital gain is a difference between the price you paid for shares when you purchased them and the price you received when selling them. Capital gains can be long- or short-term, and each has a different tax rate.

Note: As long as they are "qualified dividends," dividends are taxed in the same manner as long-term capital gains. 

What Are Preferred Stocks?

Preferred shares (also known as preferred stock) are securities that carry priority in dividend payments and a priority claim over common shares on the company’s assets and earnings. However, there are no voting rights for preference investors. 

Generally, cautious and conservative investors prefer these securities. When the earnings of the company are high, fixed dividend on preference shares becomes unattractive. But at the same time, it eliminates the risk of investing in equities.

Preferred stockholders have greater access to earnings and assets than "common stock" holders. Before holders of common shares, preferred shareholders are more likely to receive regular dividend payments. 

Preferred shareholders are entitled to assets and earnings before common shareholders in the case of bankruptcy or liquidation. Bondholders are at the top of the list of parties entitled to a company's assets in the event of its bankruptcy since they have extended a loan to the business. The following preferred stockholders are common shareholders.


Investing in equities is inherently erratic. Retail investors have no control over several internal and external elements that influence their prices. Extreme price swings can happen. You should approach investment with a long-term perspective. Equity mutual funds are one approach to reducing risks (diversification). Whatever equity investment strategy you select, be sure to know your risk tolerance and get professional guidance on the best choice for you.

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